Reason, the Good and Rights

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Marc Stier

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

 PREFACE vii

A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY xxxvii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xli

PART ONE CHALLENGES FOR LIBERAL
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 1

CHAPTER ONE THE TROUBLE WITH LIBERALISM 2

1. Philosophies and Principles 3

2. What is Liberalism? 6

2. The Challenge of Liberty 9

3. The Challenge of Democracy and Equality 14

4. The Challenge of the Politics of the Good 16

a. Environmentalism 17

b. Feminism 19

c. Traditionalism 21

d. Civic Republicanism 24

5. Liberalism and the Politics of the Good 28

CHAPTER TWO NATURALIST LIBERALISM 30

6. Naturalist Metaphysics and Epistemology 32

a. Epistemological Naturalism 32

b. Metaphysical Naturalism 33

7. Subjectivist Philosophical Psychology 36

8. Naturalism and Liberalism 38

9. The Denial of Substantive Rationality 41

10. The Primacy of Instrumental Reason 42

11. Two Versions of Naturalist Liberalism 43

12. Civil Liberty 46

13. The Flight from Politics 47

a. The Instrumental Conception of Politics 48

b. Liberal Morality 49

c. Politics and Markets 50

d. Technocracy 52

14. The Failure of Naturalist Liberalism: Rights 54

15. The Failure of Naturalist Liberalism: The Good 59

CHAPTER THREE HISTORICIST LIBERALISM 62

16. The Failure of Naturalism and the Turn to Philosophical Historicism 62

17. Interpretavist Philosophical Psychology 66

18. Historicist Liberalism 70

19. The Limits of Historicist Liberalism: Rights 72

20. The Limits of Historicist Liberalism: The Good 78

CHAPTER FOUR PERFECTIONIST LIBERALISM 85

21. Varieties of Perfectionism 86

a. Anti-Perfectionism and the Liberalism of Fear 87

b. Minimal Perfectionism 89

c. Perfectionism and Autonomy 90

22. Justifying a Conception of the Good 92

23. The Limits of Perfectionism: Liberty 94

24. The Limits of Perfectionism: Distributive Justice 97

25. The Limits of Perfectionism: Perfectionism and the Common Good 100

CHAPTER FIVE POLITICAL LIBERALISM 102

26. The Aims of Political Liberalism 104

27. Ground Floor or Second Story Political Liberalism? 108

a. Problems on the Second Story 110

b. Problems on the Ground Floor 113

28. Inclusive or Exclusive Political Liberalism? 119

29. Political Liberalism and the Possibility of Moral Discovery 124

PART TWO REASON AND THE HUMAN GOOD` 128

CHAPTER SIX DILEMMAS OF CONTEMOPRARY PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY

30. Problems for Subjectivism and Interpretavism I:
Phenomena of Individual Life 131

31. Problems for Subjectivism and Interpretavism II:
Phenomena of Political and Social Life 138

CHAPTER SEVEN WANTS AND DESIRES 148

32. Wants and Desires: The Basic Distinction 149

33. Desires, Wants and Emotions 154

34. Reflection and The Articulation of Wants 159

35. Emotions and Human Fulfillment: A First Look 171

36. Phenomena of Individual and Political and Social Life Revisited 175

a. Uncertainty and Mistakes About Our Ends 176

b. Self-deception 177

c. Weakness of Will 183

37. Human Nature and Explanation and
the Phenomena of Political and Social Life 186

CHAPTER EIGHT HUMAN WANTS AND
THE HUMAN GOOD 189

38. Reflection and Substantive Rationality 189

39. The Role of a Conception of Human Nature 192

40. The Relative Importance of Our Desires and Wants 196

41. The Satisfaction of Human Wants: Pessimistic Perspectives 199

42. The Satisfaction of Human Wants: Optimistic Perspectives 200

43. Critical Interpretavism and Plato's Republic 205

CHAPTER NINE INDIVIDUAL AND COMMON GOOD 212

44. The Good Polity and Society and Distributive Justice 212

45. The Importance of Political and Social Theory 215

46. Political Theory and the Human Good:
The Articulation of Wants and Individual and Communal Fulfillment 219

47. The Human Good and Our Good 224

48. The Virtues 228

CHAPTER TEN THEORY AND PRACTICE 231

49. The Independence of Practice 231

50. Technical, Interpretative, and Educative Uses of Political and Social Theory 234

51. The Preconditions of Educative Transformation 240

52. Technical Uses of Theory in the Service of Educative Political and Social Transformation 245

53. Political Theory and Tyranny 248

PART THREE PRAGMATIC RATIONALISM AND POLITICS 251

CHAPTER ELEVEN RATIONALITY 252

54. A Pragmatic View of Rationality 252

55. The Aims of Rational Inquiry 257

56. Ideal Rationality 264

57. The Formal Aspect of Ideal Rationality 279

58. Truth 284

CHAPTER TWELVE RATIONALITY AND RIGHTS 296

59. Do We Need an Independent Defense of Rights? 296

60. The Presupposition of Rationality in Politics 299

61. The Limits of Rationality in Politics 302

62. Formal Rationality and Political Philosophy 308

a. Universalization 309

b. The Categorical Imperative Proposal 312

c. The Consent Proposal 319

63. An Outline of the Principles of Political Right 330

CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE CHOICE OF
POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 336

64. Consent 336

65. Critical Interpretavism and the Theory of Political Right. 346

66. Republican Government 349

67. Dimensions of Political Inequality 354

a. Majoritarianism and Pluralism 355

b. Elitism, Populism and Participatory Democracy 360

c. Social Inequality and Democracy 368

d. Structural Inequality and Democracy 370

e. Educational Inequality and Democracy 387

68. Rationality—Formal and Substantive—and Political Inequality 388

a. Substantive Rationality and the Choice of a Form of Government 390

b. The Problem of Social Inequality 400

c. Is Democracy Always Required? 403

69. Consent and Corporations 404

70. Neutrality, Compromise and Subsidiarity 407

CHAPTER FOURTEEN CIVIL LIBERTY 417

71. Why Civil Liberty I?: Rational Argument and the Good 417

72. Why Civil Liberty II?: Impartiality and the Reconstructed Original Position 422

73. The Limits of Civil Liberty 432

74. What Civil Liberty Does and Does Not Require 443

75. The Claims of Religion 447

CHAPTER FIFTEEN JUSTICE 452

76. Equality of Opportunity 452

77. Justice and the Good 464

78. Desert 471

79. The Difference Principle 475

a. From the Good to the Difference Principle 475

b. The Difference Principle, Substantive Rationality and Neutrality 477

c. The Difference Principle and Natural Talents 479

d. The Difference Principle and Ambition 485

e. Grounds for the Difference Principle in Pragmatic Rationalism 493

80. Justice, Equity and Care 499

CHAPTER SIXTEEN RATIONALITY AND MORALITY 517

81. Why Do the Right Thing? 517

CONCLUSION THE RIGHT AND THE GOOD 529

82. Aspirations to the Right and the Good 529

83. Are The Right and the Good Compatible? 537

ENDNOTES 553

BIBLIOGRAPHY 655

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